Agriculture crop residues include biomass, primarily stalks and leaves, not harvested or
removed from the fields in commercial use. Examples include Corn Stover (stalks, leaves,
husks and cobs), wheat straw, and rice straw. With approximately 80 million acres of corn
planted annually, Corn Stover is expected to become a major biomass resource for
Forestry residues include biomass not harvested or removed from logging sites in commercial
hardwood and softwood stands as well as material resulting from forest management operations
such as pre-commercial thinning and removal of dead and dying trees.
Residential, commercial, and institutional post-consumer wastes contain a significant
proportion of plant derived organic material that constitute a renewable energy resource.
Waste paper, cardboard, wood waste and yard wastes are examples of biomass resources
in municipal wastes.
All processing of biomass yields byproducts and waste streams collectively called residues,
which have significant energy potential. Residues are simple to use because they have already
been collected. For example, processing of wood for products or pulp produces sawdust and
collection of bark, branches and leaves/needles.
Farms and animal processing operations create animal wastes that constitute a complex
source of organic materials with environmental consequences.
These wastes can be used to make many products, including energy.